National Security: A Political Geography Perspective

Document Type : Research Paper



National security refers to the states’ capabilities to maintain their independent identities and applied integrity (population, territory, and assets). Political geography constitutes one of the branches of human geography on whose objective aspect is emphasized in the filed of security studies. This field largely deals with the phenomenon of state or organized political sphere in general and examines the state apparatus, elements, characteristics and behavior. Hence, political geography focuses mainly on various dimensions of state including the causes of emergence, position, political center, territorial characteristics, nation, political system, political structure, space, spatial pattern of distribution of power, relationships between the state and other states, national strength, the management of territory model, and relations between various levels of the states and citizens in the administration of the country’s affairs. The literature on security in political geography has attracted the attention of political geographers as well as geopoliticians. The research conducted in this field is mainly characterized by its realist and state-centric outlook, while with the fall of the Soviet Union, the rise of new actors like non-governmental organizations (active in areas of environment, human rights, and so on) and multinational companies as well as the importance being attached to discussions of minorities and tribes, the state has been challenged as the only actor active in the arena of national and international relationships.


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