Document Type : Research Paper
Chantal Mouffe is among the thinkers who have formulated a political theory after the post-modern storm in which he considers the achievements of post-modernism and the criticisms made on modernity. To Mouffe, the modern reason has to accept its constraints and to regard human subject not as persistence, single, essential, and true but as a changing and fluid, forming creature, product of power relations and the interaction with the constructing other. So, there will not be any authentic identity which ought to be explored, developed and liberated. The product of power relations and interaction with human otherness will negate the adverse role of the other and demonstrate to the human subject that he is always affected by others and probably affect them, and not every thing is pre-existing before him. Therefore, mutual learning should be on the top of the socio-political activists’ agenda for deepened democracy and the establishment of a radical and pluralist democratic society. In this way, certain conditions should be provided so that various different minorities become able to criticize the society and the majority’s beliefs; this will contribute to mutual learning, decline in conflicts and change in the identities in a democratic space. To reach such a conception, we have to view the other as one with whom we do not feel enmity, but we oppose his viewpoints and beliefs, however we respect his right for having a different outlook and proposing it.