Cyber Revolution and Evolution in Espionage

Document Type : Research Paper



  The paper aims at illustrating the nature of the cyber revolution and its impacts on the character as well as contents of espionage.  It seems that the cyber space has led to go beyond of time and place constraints with regard to espionage and therefore, variety of espionage and new actors in this field as well as introduction of different field of espionage have caused profound impacts on the nature and contents of espionage. With this development, the cyber espionage heralds a turning point in the field of espionage, so one can argue that by the revolution in cyber technology, a revolution in espionage will be inevitable.


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