In the aftermath of 11 September,Afghanistanwas the first country ruled by Taliban and as theharborofAl-Qaidawhich was attacked by the coalition of western countries led by theUSA. Consequently, the NATO got the command inAfghanistan. Given the trend and composition of deployment as well as distribution of the NATO troops inAfghanistan, the paper studies the challenges of these troops in the country. These challenges can be considered in three categories, structural, domestic and regional. However, at the structural level, the main theme of the conflict of views between the state parties relies on their different views on functions of the troops, legal interpretations and lack of coordination among them.