عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
One of the most important aspect of political modernism is rule of "Dialogue" culture in society. Here, replacement of violence in political Struggles with peaceful rivallry based on dialogue is the main question. Are political system and government form the only factors in expansion of violence into politics? What are the social and sociological factors in this process? Sociological studies show that besides political factors from the "above", social gaps formation from the "bottom" are effective in this regard. In this research we want to show the relation between the system of political participation culture and society, and nature of social gaps. The hypothesis is social gaps form various groups'' demands and needs. If social demands be in a nondialeclical mode, there will be no hope for peaceful struggles in politics area. Such demands are rooted in gaps that we call them preferably "Identical gaps". Ethnic gaps as Identify gaps with regard to their post-class nature and emphasise on linguistic, racial and ethnic Identities can become main factor in general mobilization of special ethnic.Scholars such as Steven Regan show that in western societies after transition from Identical gaps to economic gaps, there is peacepul political participation in place of political violence.In this Article the above hypothesis will be considered and mention to various kinds of social gaps in Pahlavi era.