عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
This article examines the process of political development and the five crises societiesmay encounter in this process. Political development refers to the transformation of politicsboth in type and style. Since informal political processes challenge the formal ones,political development is not a smooth process. Five types of crisis may emerge: crises ofidentity, legitimacy, participation, distribution, and penetration. The author defines eachcrisis, clarifies their interrelationships, and discusses their impact on political development.Three measures - equality, capacity, and differentiation- are introduced and all types ofcrisis are evaluated according to their relationship with these measures. If these crises aresuccessfully resolved, the result will be political development.